• If you smile at me, I will understand
    'Cause that is something 
    Everybody everywhere does in the same language



    Hi there!  Welcome to my webpage!

    My name is Ms. Kate Poueymirou (pronounced Puh-way-mah-roo).  Most of the faculty and students know me as "Ms. Kate".  I've been a speech-language pathologist for 21 years and I love what I do!  I have the opportunity to work with children who demonstrate a variety of disabilities at preschools, daycares and homes as well as Foust Elementary.  The best way to reach me is through email:  poueymk@gcsnc.com.


    I've listed some developmental milestones below that will help you better understand when your child should be mastering articulation (i.e. speech), language and hearing/listening skills.  I've also included information about school readiness,  learning at home, parent resources, community involvement and educational websites.  Please let me know if you have any questions. 


    Age of Mastery for English and Spanish Consonants

    (Age at which 90% of boys and girls can articulate consonants correctly)




    Consonant Sounds

    Expected Age of Mastery   (Listed as years; months)

    m, n, h, w, p


    d, k, g, b, f, t


    y, “ng”


    j, l, “zh”, “sh”, “ch”, “wh”


    r, s, z


    v, “th”, blends



    Sources consulted for the development of these norms:  Poole, Sander, Hena, Fudala, Templin and Wellman




    Consonant Sounds

    Expected Age of Mastery  (Listed as years; months)

    p, m, b


    l, t, y, f, k, w, n


    d, g, r, n, “ch”


    s, x






    Speech and Language Developmental Milestones


    0-6 MONTHS

    • Repeats the same sounds
    • Frequently coos, gurgles, and makes pleasure sounds
    • Uses a different cry to express different needs
    • Smiles when spoken to
    • Recognizes voices
    • Localizes sound by turning head
    • Listens to speech
    • Uses the phonemes /b/, /p/, and /m/ in babbling
    • Uses sounds or gestures to indicate wants


    7-12 MONTHS

    • Understands no and hot
    • Responds to simple requests
    • Understands and responds to own name
    • Listens to and imitates some sounds
    • Recognizes words for common items (e.g., cup, shoe, juice)
    • Babbles using long and short groups of sounds
    • Uses a song-like intonation pattern when babbling
    • Uses a large variety of sounds in babbling
    • Imitates some adult speech sounds and intonation patterns
    • Uses speech sounds rather than only crying to get attention
    • Listens when spoken to
    • Uses sound approximations
    • Begins to change babbling to jargon
    • Uses speech intentionally for the first time
    • Uses nouns almost exclusively
    • Has an expressive vocabulary of 1 to 3 words
    • Understands simple commands


    13-18 MONTHS

    • Uses adult-like intonation patterns
    • Uses echolalia and jargon
    • Uses jargon to fill gaps in fluency
    • Omits some initial consonants and almost all final consonants
    • Produces mostly unintelligible speech
    • Follows simple commands
    • Receptively identifies 1 to 3 body parts
    • Has an expressive vocabulary of 3 to 20 + words (mostly nouns)
    • Combines gestures and vocalization
    • Makes requests for more of desired items


    19-24 MONTHS

    • Uses words more frequently than jargon
    • Has an expressive vocabulary of 50-100 or more words
    • Has a receptive vocabulary of 300 or more words
    • Starts to combine nouns and verbs
    • Begins to use pronouns
    • Maintains unstable voice control
    • Uses appropriate intonation for questions
    • Is approximately 25-50% intelligible to strangers
    • Answers “what’s that?’ questions
    • Enjoys listening to stories
    • Knows 5 body parts
    • Accurately names a few familiar objects



    2-3 YEARS

    • Speech is 50-75% intelligible
    • Understands one and all
    • Verbalizes toilet needs (before, during, or after act)
    • Requests items by name
    • Points to pictures in a book when named
    • Identifies several body parts
    • Follows simple commands and answers simple questions
    • Enjoys listening to short stories, songs, and rhymes
    • Asks 1- to 2-word questions
    • Uses 3- to 4-word phrases
    • Uses some prepositions, articles, present progressive verbs,
    • regular plurals, contractions, and irregular past tense forms
    • Uses words that are general in context
    • Continues use of echolalia when difficulties in speech are encountered
    • Has a receptive vocabulary of 500-900 or more words
    • Has an expressive vocabulary of 50-250 words or more words (rapid growth during this period)
    • Exhibits multiple grammatical errors
    • Understands most things said to him or her
    • Frequently exhibits repetitions
    • Speaks with a loud voice
    • Increases range of pitch
    • Uses vowels correctly
    • Consistently uses initial consonants (although some are mis-articulated)
    • Frequently omits medial consonants
    • Frequently omits or substitutes consonants
    • Uses approximately 27 phonemes
    • Uses auxiliary is including the contracted form
    • Uses some regular past tense verbs, possessive morphemes, pronouns, and imperative

    3-4 YEARS

    • Understands object functions
    • Understands differences in meanings (stop-go, in-on, big-little)
    • Follows 2-and 3-part commands
    • Asks and answers simple questions (who, what, where, why)
    • Frequently asks questions and often demands detail in responses
    • Produces simple verbal analogies
    • Uses language to express emotion
    • Uses 4 to 5 words in sentences
    • Repeats 6- to 13-syllable sentences accurately
    • Identifies objects by name
    • Manipulates adults and peers
    • May continue to use echolalia
    • Uses up to 6 words in a sentence
    • Uses nouns and verbs most frequently
    • Is conscious of past and future
    • Has a 1,200-2,000 or more word receptive vocabulary
    • Has a 800-1,500 or more word expressive vocabulary
    • May repeat self often, exhibiting blocks, disturbed breathing, and facial grimaces during a speech
    • Increases speech rate
    • Whispers
    • Masters 50% of consonants and blends
    • Speech is 80% intelligible
    • Sentence grammar improves, although some errors still persist
    • Appropriately uses is, are, and am in sentences
    • Tells two events in chronological order
    • Engages in long conversations
    • Uses some contractions, irregular plurals, future tense verbs, and conjunctions
    • Consistently uses regular plurals, possessives, and simple past tense verbs


    4-5 YEARS

    • Imitatively counts to 5
    • Understands concept of numbers up to 3
    • Continues understanding of spatial concepts
    • Recognizes 1 to 3 colors
    • Has a receptive vocabulary of 2,800 or more words
    • Counts to 10 by rote
    • Listens to short, simple stories
    • Answers questions about function
    • Uses grammatically correct sentences
    • Has an expressive vocabulary of 900-2,000 or more words
    • Uses sentences of 4 to 8 words
    • Answers complex 2-part questions
    • Asks for word definitions
    • Speaks at a rate of approximately 186 words per minute
    • Reduces total number of repetitions
    • Enjoys rhymes, rhythms, and nonsense syllables
    • Produces consonants with 90% accuracy
    • Significantly reduces number of persistent sound omissions
    • and substitutions
    • Frequently omits medial consonants
    • Speech is usually intelligible to strangers
    • Talks about experiences at school, at friends’ homes, etc.
    • Accurately relays a long story
    • Pays attention to a story and answers simple questions about it
    • Uses some irregular plurals, possessive pronouns, future
    • tense, reflexive pronouns, and comparative morphemes in sentences


    Hearing and Listening

    Developmental Milestones

    0-3 Months

    • Startles or jumps at sudden loud sounds
    • Stirs, awakens or cries when someone talks or makes noise
    • Recognizes a parent’s voice and quiets when parent speaks
    • Coos and makes the “ahhhh” sound


    3-6 Months

    • Turns eyes toward interesting sounds
    • Appears to listen
    • Awakens to noise when sleeping quietly
    • Responds to changes in voice (quiet to loud, or happy to angry)
    • Responds to toys that make noise


    6-12 Months

    • Begins to imitate sounds
    • Enjoys toys for their sounds
    • Responds to music by smiling or moving


    12-24 Months (1-2 years of age)

    • Attends to music by cooing, singing or humming along



    *Adapted from Austin Independent School District’s School and Communication booklet titled:  Preparing your child to communicate in school.  This booklet was created by Penny McClard, MS, CCC-SLP, Kate Poueymirou, MA, CCC-SLP and Shannon Williams, MA, CCC-SLP.




    Getting Ready for School


    All children benefit from regular routines at home.  Such as: 

    • Having regular sleep hours. Make sure your child gets enough sleep (8-10 hours each night).
    • Having regular meals and meal times, especially breakfast. Pay attention to nutrition. 
    • Having routine ways to do daily activities.
      • Meal time routines – setting table, sitting down, eating, cleaning up.
      • Bed time routine – getting ready for bed in a usual fashion every night, doing homework, preparing clothes and materials for the next day, bathing, saying goodnight.
      • Getting ready for daycare or school routine – breakfast, bathing, getting dressed, packing backpack, preparing lunch or snacks.
      • Cleaning up routine – cleaning up after meals, playtime, bathing.
      • Hygiene – brushing teeth or bathing at a regular time, taking care of clothes by hanging or folding, placing dirty ones in a specific place.

    Communication and Behavior

    • Have clear expectations of responsibilities and behavior. For example, “In the library you use a quiet voice”. 
    • Use natural consequences, “If you hit, people do not want to play with you”.
    • Replace inappropriate behaviors with words
    • Such as grabbing a toy, “Oh, you want the toy, say ‘my turn please’, then give them the toy.
    • Or screaming and stomping when a toy doesn’t work, “Do you need help? Say

    help please’”. 

    • Model good communication:
      • Slow, calm speech
      • Quiet voice instead of yelling
      • Take turns
      • Wait for an answer
    • Listen until your child is finished talking. Do not rush or interrupt them.


    *Adapted from Austin Independent School District’s School and Communication booklet titled:  Preparing your child to communicate in school.  This booklet was created by Penny McClard, MS, CCC-SLP, Kate Poueymirou, MA, CCC-SLP and Shannon Williams, MA, CCC-SLP.





    Learning at Home


    Vocabulary and Sentence Development

    • Learn colors, numbers and direction or place words such as up, down, beside, next to by playing board games such as Candyland or playing with blocks or Play Dough.
    • Learn body parts by playing Mr. Potato Head, playing during bath time and getting dressed.
    • Take learning walks. Talk about what you see.  For example, “The bird is in the tree.  The bird is red and bigger than a mouse.”.

    Word Relationships and Meaning

    • Label items, talk about what they look like. “It’s an apple, it’s red and shiny.”
    • Shop by category – fruits, vegetables, meats, cold food, dry food, and non-food.
    • Talk about the names of categories and items in a category with the child while you shop.
    • Compare items while shopping: “An apple is sweet, a lemon sour.”
    • The same comparisons can be done with clothing, toys and furniture.
    • Talk about texture, shape and use of items.

    Sequencing and Organization

    • Use routines of daily care: List steps required for a task, have child list steps back to you.  Talk about steps, using words such as first, next, last
    • Give the child instructions and then let them take a turn telling you what to do. Use words like on, under, beside and in.
    • Help the child understand sorting and place when cleaning house. Put items in a specific place:  pens and paper go on the desk, dishes in the cabinet, clothes in the hamper or basket. 
    • Use natural sorting during play or while taking walks. Sort rocks, leaves, nuts or any items found during play. 

    Listening and Understanding

    • Play “Simon Says” starting with easy directions and move to 2 or 3 steps.
    • Sing favorite songs.
    • Encourage sitting still, eye contact and attention when your child is listening to stories or songs.


    Talking About Events and Telling Stories

    • Read with your child every day. Read words and/or talk about pictures. 
    • Watch a movie or cartoon. Point out details while watching.  Ask questions during the breaks. 
    • After the show, talk about what happened, have the child retell the story to you with help for the correct sequence or to include important details.
    • Use the same technique to talk about an activity or even the child has attended, such as a birthday party, paly with a friend or a visit to the store.
    • After a story or show, try acting out the parts.
    • Make books to encourage story telling. Draw or cut out pictures from a magazine or newspaper to create a new storybook.  Have your child tell you the story with specific details, describing the sequence of a story and characters.

    Social Skills

    • Model and teach, “please”, “thank you” and “I’m sorry”.
    • Model and teach asking for help.
    • Model and teach compliments.
    • Model and teach appropriate ways to disagree, “no” or “I don’t want to”.
    • Play games where kids have to wait for a turn. Play with turns that go around the group and then play with random turns with children raising hand or requesting a turn. 
    • Teach waiting until partner is finished with turn before requesting a turn or speaking. Waiting is part of taking turns in play and conversation.


    *Adapted from Austin Independent School District’s School and Communication booklet titled:  Preparing your child to communicate in school.  This booklet was created by Penny McClard, MS, CCC-SLP, Kate Poueymirou, MA, CCC-SLP and Shannon Williams, MA, CCC-SLP.





    Parent Resources


    Public Schools of North Carolina State Board of Education Department of Public Instruction This portion of the website provides state guidelines related to the Exceptional Children’s Program.  Parents can also find the Procedural Safeguards: Handbook on Parents' Rights on this site.  If your child has and IEP (Individualized Education Plan) this book will answer many frequently asked questions related to the Exceptional Children’s Program.



    Guilford Child Development will give you information about NC Pre-K, Head start, and Early Head Start.http://www.guilfordchilddev.org/index.php?option=com_rsform&Itemid=344

    It also provides resources designed to help parents find quality childcare facilities. http://www.guilfordchilddev.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=131&Itemid=87

    Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children, or TACSEI. This website provides information to parents and caregivers for how they can support their young child or children who demonstrate behavioral problems and who have, or are at risk to have, delays or disabilities.  It provides free products and resources designed to help parents promote the development and use of developmentally appropriate social-emotional skills and decrease challenging behaviors.http://www.challengingbehavior.org/communities/families.htm

    Autism Speaks provides information and resources for parents who have questions related to Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders.  http://www.autismspeaks.org


    Piedmont Parent provides news, articles and resources for Triad parents and parents-to-be covering infants and toddlers, tweens, teens, pregnancy, health, travel and community events and resources.http://www.piedmontparent.com/

    Family Support Network of Central Carolina provides support, information/education and caring connections for parents and caregivers of children with disabilities or born prematurely.http://www.fsncc.org/






    Community Involvement

    Providing your child an opportunity to interact with other children is important to helping them develop their social skills and relationships with others.  Although children do learn by watching others, they may need encouragement to join in the fun.  Here are a few ideas of places to go and things to do to help your child develop their social skills.  There are a variety of programs out there that can be accessed throughout the school year and over the summer. 


    Free Play Social Experiences

    • Check a local calendar or set up play dates with other families. This can be a great starting point if your child has had limited exposure to other children.  Try these resources to connect with other families or community events:
      • triadmommies.com
      • momslikeme.com
      • triadmomsonmain.com
    • Visit local parks. On a nice day, there are sure to be young children that your child can play with that would provide a great model. 
    • Visit the museums or other child-friendly centers. There are always lots of children and tons of interactive exhibits to make it an educational and social experience. 
    • Children’s Museum: 220 North Church Street, Greensboro.
    • Natural Science Center: 4301 Lawndale Drive in Greensboro. 
    • Tumblebees, an indoor gym, Offers “bee”cess and “Tumbletime”. They are located on 6904 Downwind Road in Greensboro.  They offer a wide variety of other programs and classes.  Call (336) 665-0662 for more information.
    • Bumper Jumpers is another great place for active kids to get their wiggles out! It is a parent and instructor supervised indoor playground with lots of jumping equipment.  Physical activity can often be a motivator for children to chase, imitate, and interact with others.  Bumper Jumpers is located at 4217 High Point Road in Greensboro. 
    • Check out Artquest. On Monday mornings 10:30 AM they have Early Childhood focused activities and story time. Another small group activity for children who love Art and drawing!  ArtQuest is located in the Greensboro Cultural Center at 200 N. Davie St. in Greensboro.
    • Check your local library and book stores (such as “Barnes and Nobles”) to find free story times programs every week. Greensboro libraries also have special programs and events at all of the locations.  Check the Greensboro Library website or piedmontparent.com for a calendar of events.


    Small Group and Structured social Experiences


    • Many local churches offer Vacation Bible School. These programs are free and often have smaller groups of children.  This can be a perfect introduction to a preschool experience.
    • Check local churches and child development centers for Mother’s Morning out Programs. These programs are from 1-2 days a week or monthly.  They often give the mom’s a chance to socialize with other moms while offering childcare/activities to the children.  This could be another great introduction to a preschool setting.  Mother’s Morning Out Programs are usually held only during the school year.  Here are a couple to get you started…
      • Grace Community Church - 643 W. Lee St., GSO Phone: 336-337-3500
        Christ Community Church - 369 Air Harbor Rd., GSO  Phone Number: 336-348-1543
        Jamestown UMC - 403 East Main St., Jamestown, Phone: 336-854-8766





    Online Resources for Learning and Games


    This website provides lots of educational activities in language arts for preschool and elementary age children. Specifically, it addresses learning the ABC’s, phonics and nursery rhymes.  It also provides and printable flashcards, story patterns and craft ideas. 



    This is an interactive site containing preschool lessons, puzzles, and questions of the day. It also provides information about different classroom settings and programs as well as assistive technology.


    This site offers adapted books and teaching/learning materials created with Boardmaker, Writing with Symbols, and PowerPoint software.



    BoardmakerShare is the perfect community for finding thousands of Boardmaker activities on hundreds of topics. Here you can find communication boards, pictures and activities to complete at home.


    This site offers themed activities, printable materials and songs. There are activities for holidays and interesting pictures for your child to color.